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Pemphigus foliaceus (PF) is the most common autoimmune skin disease of dogs and other animal species. Although PF can spontaneously affect dogs of any breed, it appears more prevalent in Akita Inus and chow chows in the United States. The primary lesions are large pustules which rupture easily and progress rapidly to erosions and crusts. Lesion distribution most often involves the face, nasal planum, and ears. One third of affected dogs have paw pad lesions. Skin lesions of PF can remain localized or involve the entire body. The diagnosis of PF in dogs is based on historical information, clinical signs, and the demonstration of acantholytic keratinocytes in vesicles or pustules. (Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery)
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OBJECTIVES: To determine the clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of endemic pemphigus and the risk factors of patients for developing complications during treatment.
METHODS: A study was carried out from July 2003 to March 2008. The study population was 60 patients with EPF and 7 patients with EPV evaluated in hospitals and clinics in the Peruvian Amazon and Lima. A multivariate analysis was carried out using binary logistic regression.
RESULTS: The average age of EPF patients was 31.4 years; 55% were men; 60% presented the generalized clinical variant. Non-compliance with the treatment was seen in 57.1% of the patients. Thirty-five percent presented complications (e.g. pyodermitis and pyelonephritis) during treatment. The risk factors for developing complications during treatment were non-compliance with the treatment and having the generalized clinical form. In the EPV group, the average age was 21.7 years; 71.4% were men. All patients presented with the mucocutaneous clinical variant and the initial presentation consisted of oral mucosa lesions; 71.4% presented complications during treatment, pyodermitis being the most frequent.
CONCLUSIONS: Non-compliance with the treatment and the generalized clinical form are risk factors for the development of complications during treatment of patients with EPF. Peru indeed has EPV cases with epidemiologic characteristics similar to EPF. Living in a rural area may represent a risk factor for the development of complications during treatment of patients with EPV.
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Full article can be viewed here: http://www.hindawi.com/crim/dm/2012/207126/
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Pemphigus foliaceus (PF) is an immune-mediated disease that causes pustules and crusted lesions, most commonly on the pinnae, nasal planum, periocular area, chin, feet of affected cats. Acantholytic cells caused by dehydration of intercellular adhesions are often seen on cytology but are not pathognomic for PF. A definitive diagnosis is made based on histopathology showing subcorneal pustules with nondegenerate neutrophils and acantholytic cells. PF is treated with immunosuppressive doses of corticosteroids alone or in combination with other immunosuppresive medications, such as chlorambucil or cyclosporine. Most patients require lifelong treatment with these medications to keep the disease in remission.
Hershey, a 6-year-old, spayed domestic shorthaired cat weighing 3.4 kg, presented with an acute onset of nonpruritic crusted lesions on the head, ears, nail beds, and nasal area. She had a 2-day history of lethargy and anorexia. She had no history of medical disease and was up-to-date on vaccinations.
Pemphigus in Dogs
Pemphigus is the general designation for a group of autoimmune skin diseases involving ulceration and crusting of the skin, as well as the formation of fluid-filled sacs and cysts (vesicles), and pus filled lesions (pustules). Some types of pemphigus can also affect the skin tissue of the gums. An autoimmune disease is characterized by the presence of autoantibodies that are produced by the system, but which act against the body’s healthy cells and tissues — just as white blood cells act against infection. In effect, the body is attacking itself. The severity of the disease depends on how deeply the autoantibody deposits into the skin layers. The hallmark sign of pemphigus is a condition called acantholysis, where the skin cells separate and break down because of tissue-bound antibody deposits in the space between cells.
There are four types of pemphigus that affect dogs: pemphigus foliaceus, pemphigus erythematosus, pemphigus vulgaris, and pemphigus vegetans.
In the disease pemphigus foliaceus, the autoantibodies are deposited in the outermost layers of the epidermis, and blisters form on otherwise healthy skin. Pemphigus erythematosus is fairly common, and is a lot like pemphigus foliaceus, but less afflictive. Pemphigus vulgaris, on the other hand, has deeper, and more severe, ulcers because the autoantibody is deposited deep in the skin. Pemphigus vegetans, which affects only dogs, is the rarest form of pemphigus, and seems to be a gentler version of pemphigus vulgaris, with somewhat milder ulcers.
full article can be found here: http://www.petmd.com/dog/conditions/skin/c_dg_pemphigus?page=show#.UQbd3R3WLXA