Tag Archives: immunofluorescence

The relationship between bullous pemphigoid (BP) and neurological disease has been the subject of numerous recent studies and BP antigens and their isoforms have been identified in the central nervous system (CNS). Whilst epidemiological data support this association, little is known about the pathomechanism behind this link and the immunological characteristics of patients with BP and neurological disease, other than multiple sclerosis (MS), has not been studied. We aimed to compare the cutaneous immune response in BP patients with and without neurological disease, to investigate whether or not there is a distinctive immunopathological profile in patients with concomitant BP and neurological disease. Seventy-two patients with BP were included and divided into two groups; those with neurological disease (BP+N, n = 43) and those without (BP−N, n = 29).

Patients in BP+N group had a confirmed neurological disease by a hospital physician, neurologist or psychiatrist with positive neurological imaging where appropriate, or a Karnofsky score of 50 or less due to mental impairment. All sera were analysed with indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) using serial dilutions up to 1:120000, immunoblotting (IB) and Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for BP180 and BP230. Median antibody titres by IIF were 1:1600 vs. 1:800 for BP−N and BP+N, respectively, although the difference did not reach statistic significance (P = 0.93, Mann–Whitney U-test).

ELISA values for both BP180 and BP230 did not differ significantly between the two groups. Similarly, autoantibodies to specific antigens as identified by ELISA and IB were not related to the presence of neurological disease. The results of this study indicate that patients with BP and neurological disease exhibit an immune response to both BP180 and BP230, thus the link between the CNS and the skin is not dependent on a specific antigen, but possibly both antigens or their isoforms may be exposed following a neurological insult, and play a role in generation of an immune response. 

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Pemphigus is a rare vesiculobullous autoimmune disease that exhibits blistering of the skin and oral cavity. It is caused by autoantibodies directed against antigens on the surface of keratinocytes. All forms of pemphigus are associated with the presence of circulating and skin-fixed autoantibodies. Pemphigus vegetans is a rare clinical variant of pemphigus vulgaris and comprises up to 5 percent of all pemphigus cases. In the following we present the oral presentation of pemphigus vegetans. We describe a 33-year-old man who was referred to our clinic complaining about mouth sores, tooth pain, and multiple pustules. During clinical exam we were able to recognize multiple pustules, ulcerated areas on the gingiva, and whitish mucosal plaques. Clinical, histopathological, and direct immunofluorescence findings were compatible with pemphigus vegetans.

Full article available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23122017?dopt=Abstract

Context.-Pemphigus is a group of autoimmune vesiculobullous diseases characterized by immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies directed against desmosomal adhesion proteins, with IgG4 being the predominant subclass in active diseases. Direct immunofluorescence for IgG performed on fresh-frozen tissue plays a crucial role in diagnosing pemphigus. However, the diagnosis might be hindered when frozen tissue is not available. Objective.-To evaluate the usefulness of immunohistochemistry for IgG4 performed on paraffin sections as a diagnostic test for pemphigus. Design.-Eighteen immunofluorescence-proven pemphigus cases (12 pemphigus vulgaris, 6 pemphigus foliaceus) were studied. Four normal skin specimens and 32 nonpemphigus vesiculobullous disease specimens served as controls. Paraffin sections of all cases were examined immunohistochemically for IgG4 expression. Positivity was defined as distinct, condensed, continuous immunoreactivity localized to the intercellular junctions of keratinocytes. Results.-The immunostains were independently evaluated in a masked manner by 3 pathologists, with a 100% interobserver agreement. Nine of 12 pemphigus vulgaris cases (sensitivity 75.0%), and 4 of 6 pemphigus foliaceus cases (sensitivity 66.7%), were positive for IgG4 immunostain. The overall sensitivity was 72.2%. One control specimen (bullous pemphigoid) showed IgG4 positivity (specificity 97.2%). In specimens demonstrating acantholysis, 8 of 10 pemphigus vulgaris cases (sensitivity 80.0%) and 4 of 4 pemphigus foliaceus cases (sensitivity 100.0%) were positive for IgG4. The overall sensitivity for specimens with acantholytic lesions was 85.7%. Conclusion.-Immunohistochemistry for IgG4 provides a reasonably sensitive and highly specific test for diagnosing pemphigus, especially when frozen tissue is not available, and active acantholytic lesions are examined.

Full article available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23106586?dopt=Abstract


Rosacea is a common dermatosis that can involve the bald area of the scalp. We report the case of a man presenting clinical symptoms of rosacea of the forehead and the scalp, but with a histological picture of familial chronic benign pemphigus.


A 47-year-old man with a history of Hailey-Hailey disease had been presenting facial dermatosis for 5 years. The clinical features were erythema with pustules and scales located on the mid-forehead and the androgenic bald area of the frontal scalp. The histological aspect of the skin biopsy showed suprabasilar clefting and ancantholysis at all levels of the epidermis and sparse perivascular infiltrate. Direct immunofluorescence was negative. These findings were typical of Hailey-Hailey disease. Based on clinical findings, and without taking account of the skin biopsy results, treatment with doxycycline and a topical antifungal was administered for 3 months, leading to remission of symptoms.


The site of rosacea on the bald area of the scalp in males is described in the literature, and when present, is probably enhanced by exposure to UV radiation. In this patient, the histological features were interpreted as histopathologically equivalent to Köbner phenomenon.

full article available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23122375?dopt=Abstract