Tag Archives: paraneoplastic pemphigus

Paraneoplastic pemphigus (PNP), a clinically and immunopathologically distinct mucocutaneous blistering dermatosis, is a severe form of autoimmune multiorgan syndrome generally associated with poor therapeutic outcome and high mortality. This IgG-mediated disease is initiated by an obvious or occult lymphoproliferative disorder in most cases. Clinically severe mucositis, and polymorphic blistering skin eruptions, and histologically acantholysis, keratinocyte necrosis and interface dermatitis are its hallmark features. A 58-year-old female presented with recurrent, severe, recalcitrant stomatitis and widespread erosions/blistering lesions of one-year duration. Treatment with repeated courses of systemic corticosteroids at a peripheral center would provide temporary relief. She also had fever, productive cough, odynophagia and poor oral intake, herpes zoster ophthalmicus, pain in the abdomen, and watery diarrhea. An array of investigations revealed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), mediastinal and para-aortic lymphadenopathy, bronchiolitis obliterans, and vertebral osteoporosis/fractures. With the diagnosis of CLL-associated PNP she was managed with dexamethasone-cyclophosphamide pulse (DCP) therapy for 3 cycles initially, followed by COP regimen (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisolone) for 5 cycles. Remission is being maintained with chlorambucil and prednisolone pulse therapy once in 3 weeks with complete resolution of skin lesions and adequate control of CLL.

Full article can be viewed here: http://www.hindawi.com/crim/dm/2012/207126/

Paraneoplastic pemphigus (PNP) is a rare, life-threatening, autoimmune, mucocutaneous blistering disease associated with neoplasia. Both humoral and cellular immunity are involved in the pathogenesis of PNP. Characteristically, PNP has a diverse spectrum of clinical and immunopathological features. We retrospectively analyzed 12 Korean patients with PNP who were diagnosed between 1993 and 2011. We performed analysis of the

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clinical features, clinical outcomes, underlying neoplasia, histological features and laboratory findings. All of the patients except one had severe mucosal involvement. Two patients had only mucosal lesions but no cutaneous involvement was observed. Erythema multiforme or lichen planus-like eruptions rather than bullous lesions were more commonly observed skin rashes. The most common histological features were interface dermatitis and apoptotic keratinocytes. There were associated hematological-related neoplasms in 11 patients, with Castleman’s disease (n = 4) as the most frequent. Twelve patients were followed for 5–148 months (mean, 43.0). The prognosis depended on the nature of the underlying neoplasm. Six patients died due to respiratory failure (n = 3), postoperative septicemia (n = 1), lymphoma (n = 1) and sarcomatosis (n = 1). The 2-year survival rate was 50.0%, and the median survival period after diagnosis was 21.0 months. Immunoblotting was performed in 12 patients and autoantibodies to plakins were detected in 11 patients. The results of this study demonstrated the clinical, histological and immunological diversity of PNP. Widely accepted diagnostic criteria that account for the diversity of PNP are needed.

Full Article available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1346-8138.2012.01655.x/abstract

Paraneoplastic pemphigus (PNP) is a distinct autoimmune blistering disease that can affect multiple organs other than the skin. It occurs in association with certain neoplasms, among which lymphoproliferative diseases are most commonly associated. The clinical presentation of PNP consists typically of painful, severe oral erosions that may be accompanied by a generalised cutaneous eruption and systemic involvement. The eruption may be of different morphology, consisting of lesions that resemble pemphigus, pemphigoid, erythema multiforme or graft versus host disease, as well as lesions resembling lichen planus. Similarly, the histological findings also show considerable variability. PNP is characterised by the presence of autoantibodies against various antigens: desmoplakin I (250 kd), bullous pemphigoid antigen I (230 kd), desmoplakin II (210 kd), envoplakin (210 kd), periplakin (190 kd), plectin (500 kd) and a 170-kd protein. This 170-kd protein has recently been identified as alpha-2-macroglobulin-like-1, a broad range protease inhibitor expressed in stratified epithelia and other tissue damaged in PNP. The prognosis of PNP is poor and the disease is often fatal. Immunosuppressive agents are often required to decrease blistering, and treating the underlying malignancy with chemotherapy may control autoantibody production. The prognosis is better when PNP is associated with benign tumours and these should be surgically excised when possible.