Tag Archives: pemphigus

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american-quarter-horsePemphigus foliaceus (pem-fi-gus foli-a-shus) is an auto immune disease that affects humans and dogs and, to a lesser extent, cats and horses.
In horses, it is characterized by primary lesions that often begin on the head and lower extremities; secondary lesions spread to other areas, with an exudate that dries to a crust. There may be extensive edema (swelling) in the legs and abdomen (called “ventral” edema).
Equine pemphigus foliaceus (EPF) is considered rare and signs and symptoms may resemble those of other conditions such as insect bite allergies (crusty lesions), pigeon fever (ventral edema) or other skin conditions.
The primary way to diagnose EPF is by punch biopsy of the skin which is examined by a veterinary pathologist. The pathologist looks for changes consistent with this diagnosis, while also ruling out other causes.
Horses with EPF may also have systemic signs of illness – fever, depression, loss of appetite, lethargy and weight loss. The skin may be painful to touch and swelling can make it difficult to walk or lie down.
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Senear-Usher syndrome or pemphigus erythematosus is a pathology that overlaps clinically and serologically with pemphigus foliaceus and lupus erythematosus. Skin biopsies of patients with pemphigus erythematosus reveal acantholysis and deposits of immunoglobulins in desmosomes, and they are positive in the lupus band test. In the present paper, we determined whether the autoantibodies associated with pemphigus erythematosus targeted a single antigen or multiple antigens as a result of the stimulation of independent B cell clones. Our present paper demonstrates that patients with pemphigus erythematosus produce both antiepithelial antibodies specific for desmoglein 1 and 3 and antinuclear antibodies specific for Ro, La, Sm, and double-stranded DNA antigens. After eluting specific anti-epithelial or anti-nuclear antibodies, which were recovered and tested using double-fluorescence assays, a lack of cross-reactivity was demonstrated between desmosomes and nuclear and cytoplasmic lupus antigens. This result suggests that autoantibodies in pemphigus erythematosus are directed against different antigens and that these autoantibodies are produced by independent clones. Given these clinical and serological data, we suggest that pemphigus erythematosus behaves as a multiple autoimmune disease.

Full article can be viewed on: http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ad/2012/296214/

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Screenshot_2Pemphigus foliaceus (PF) is an immune-mediated disease that causes pustules and crusted lesions, most commonly on the pinnae, nasal planum, periocular area, chin, feet of affected cats. Acantholytic cells caused by dehydration of intercellular adhesions are often seen on cytology but are not pathognomic for PF. A definitive diagnosis is made based on histopathology showing subcorneal pustules with nondegenerate neutrophils and acantholytic cells. PF is treated with immunosuppressive doses of corticosteroids alone or in combination with other immunosuppresive medications, such as chlorambucil or cyclosporine. Most patients require lifelong treatment with these medications to keep the disease in remission.

Hershey, a 6-year-old, spayed domestic shorthaired cat weighing 3.4 kg, presented with an acute onset of nonpruritic crusted lesions on the head, ears, nail beds, and nasal

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area. She had a 2-day history of lethargy and anorexia. She had no history of medical disease and was up-to-date on vaccinations.

Full article on: http://mobile.vetlearn.com/Media/images/pdf/2010/PV/PV0510_mckay_Derm.pdf