Tag Archives: pemphigus foliaceus

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This study aimed to highlight the importance of routine screening for hyperglycemia and to develop a standardized, evidence-based approach for the management of pemphigus patients on prolonged systemic corticosteroid (CS) therapy. A cross-sectional study was conducted in two university-affiliated teaching hospitals using a referred sample of 200 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of pemphigus vulgaris, pemphigus foliaceus, or mucous membrane pemphigoid. All patients were receiving systemic CS therapy. A total of 150 patients responded to the survey. Six participants were excluded and 144 were included. The main outcome measure was blood glucose level to detect hyperglycemia. New-onset hyperglycemia was identified in 40% of patients who received CS therapy. None of the expected variables, including age, body mass index, family history of diabetes, corticosteroid dose, and duration of corticosteroid therapy, were independently associated with new-onset hyperglycemia. These findings indicate that the prevalence of CS-induced hyperglycemia in pemphigus patients is 40% and that in patients with pemphigus or MMP, CS therapy is associated with a markedly increased risk for hyperglycemia (odds ratio = 10.7, 95% confidence interval 1.38–83.50) compared with that of patients with the same diseases who do not receive CS therapy.

Full article available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-4632.2012.05470.x/abstract

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Background  Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) and pemphigus foliaceus (PF) are potentially fatal blistering diseases caused by autoantibodies targeting desmoglein (Dsg) adhesion proteins. Previous studies have shown an IgG4 > IgG1 predominance of anti-Dsg antibodies in pemphigus; however, no studies have examined total serum IgG4 levels in pemphigus. IgG4 is induced by chronic antigen stimulation, which could occur with persistent skin blistering and potentially elevate the total serum IgG4 relative to other IgG subclasses in patients with pemphigus.

Objectives  The primary aim of the study was to quantitate total and Dsg-specific IgG subclasses in patients with pemphigus.

Methods  IgG subclasses and Dsg-specific IgG1 and IgG4 were quantitated in patients with PV and PF, and in sera from age-matched controls using a subclass enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The effectiveness of IgG4 depletion in blocking IgG pathogenicity in PV was determined using a keratinocyte dissociation assay.

Results  Dsg-specific antibodies comprised a median of 7·1% and 4·2% of total IgG4 in patients with PV and PF, respectively, with eightfold and fourfold enrichment in IgG4 vs. IgG1. Total serum IgG4, but not other IgG subclasses, was enriched in patients with PV and PF compared with age-matched controls (P = 0·004 and P = 0·005, respectively). IgG4 depletion of PV sera reduced pathogenicity in a keratinocyte dissociation assay and showed that affinity-purified IgG4 is more pathogenic than other serum IgG fractions.

Conclusions  Dsg-specific autoantibodies are significantly enriched in IgG4, which may explain the enrichment of total serum IgG4 in some patients with pemphigus. By preferentially targeting autoimmune rather than beneficial immune antibodies, IgG4-targeted therapies may offer safer treatment options for pemphigus.

Full article available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2133.2012.11144.x/abstract

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We evaluated the effectiveness of mizoribine, a newly developed immunosuppressive agent, as an adjuvant therapy in the treatment of both pemphigus vulgaris and pemphigus foliaceus. Eleven pemphigus patients (eight pemphigus vulgaris and three pemphigus foliaceus) received the combination therapy of prednisolone and mizoribine. Complete remission was observed in three of the eight patients with pemphigus vulgaris and in one of the three patients with pemphigus foliaceus. The four patients with complete remission had a rapid clinical response and achieved remission at a median of 11.8 months. Partial remission was achieved in two of the three patients with pemphigus foliaceus. The median time to achieve partial remission was 16.0 months. Six (55.6%) of the 11 patients with pemphigus had complete or partial remission and were able to taper their prednisolone. The cumulative probability of having a complete remission was 64.3% at 19 months of follow-up using Kaplan–Meier analysis. The effectiveness of the additional mizoribine therapy could be attributed to its corticosteroid-sparing properties as well as its immunosuppressive effects. The serum concentration titer of mizoribine was around 1.0 μg/mL 2 hours after administration. Patients who were not improved by the additional mizoribine might require a continuously higher dose of mizoribine to achieve effective therapy.

Full Article available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1529-8019.2012.01469.x/abstract